10. Towards abundant creativity

This page contains the opening portion of Chapter 10 from
Sustainable Superabundance: A universal transhumanist invitation

tam graphic 10

10. Towards abundant creativity

As discussed in the previous chapter, greater machine intelligence and task automation have the potential, not only for triumph, but also for disaster. Alongside their potential to positively accelerate human flourishing in multiple spheres, these systems also have the potential to malfunction, catastrophically. These systems might give rise to what has been called “killer robots” – automated agents that unexpectedly kill vast numbers of people.

A key complication with killer robots is that it may be difficult ahead of time to appreciate the full extent of the dangers they pose. There could be an initial period in which automated systems demonstrate apparently smart decisions and stunning improvements in operational effectiveness. These systems could be involved, for example, in creating remarkable new medical cures or novel mechanisms to extract greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. During this period, human observers would come to feel confident about the technology involved – and about increasing the resources at the disposal of automated agents. But this could be a prelude to these systems veering badly off course, in an adverse reaction to some unforeseen circumstances. Adverse outcomes could include an all-consuming escalation of fake news, a meltdown in our global electronics infrastructure, the inadvertent destabilisation of the entire planetary climate dynamics, or an accidental nuclear holocaust. The confidence that humans had developed in machine intelligence and pervasive automation would turn out to have been utterly misplaced.

This category of existential risk evidently needs far-sighted management, via, amongst other measures, the rapid development and wise enforcement of lean safety frameworks. But killer robots are by no means the only major concern raised by the growth of machine intelligence. We also need to give serious consideration to the possibility of “job killing robots” – automation that performs workforce tasks much better than humans, and deprives humans of employment.

Both sets of threat need to be assessed and managed in parallel. To add to the considerations of the preceding chapter, the present chapter looks at the threat posed to options for human employment by greater machine intelligence and more pervasive automation.

The threat from job killing robots may be viewed as less cataclysmic than the threat from killer robots. However, as this chapter highlights, the way society responds to huge numbers of people being deprived of employment could itself trigger a spiral into an increasingly tragic outcome. As such, there are no grounds for complacency. At the same time, there are grounds for real optimism too.

The opportunity for creativity

The threat to employment from automation has long been foretold. Up till now, these predictions seem to have been premature. However, the closer AI comes to AGI – the closer that artificial intelligence comes to possessing general capabilities in reasoning – the more credible these predictions become. The closer that AI comes to AGI, the bigger the ensuing social disruption.

How will humans cope, if their income from work is materially reduced, or perhaps disappears altogether? Should greater automation be feared, resisted, or slowed down?

To state the conclusion: rather than fearing this development, transhumanists look forward to the greater freedom that it can entail – greater opportunities for all-round human flourishing. Humans will no longer need to invest such large portions of their time in occupations that are back-breaking or soul-destroying. We’ll be able, instead, to participate in the creation and exploration of music, arts, sports, ecosystems, planets, and whole new universes. This will happen because the immense bounty from greater automation will contain plenty for everyone’s needs.

But before this abundance of creativity can be attained, some significant adjustments are needed in the human condition – changes in mindset, and changes in our collective social contract. These adjustments will be far from trivial. A great deal of inertia will need to be overcome, en route to realising the full benefits of improved automation.


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There’s more to democracy than voting

Suppose that the UK held another referendum on the subject of Brexit. Suppose that the numerical result was essentially the same as before: around 52% voting for the UK to leave the EU, and around 48% voting for the UK to remain.

In that case, would that referendum prove to have been a massive waste of time and money?

My answer: not necessarily. Such a vote could actually lead to the healing of the nation, rather than to continued divisiveness and chaos.

politics chaos or healing

It all depends, not on the numerical result, but on the calibre of the arguments raised during that referendum.

If supporters of Leave came forward, during the campaign, with arguments that were less contestable and more compelling than before, this could lead to a healing of the nation. People who voted for the other option in the referendum might still feel disappointed. But they could accept that there were sound arguments in favour of the side that won. And, unlike the case of the first Brexit referendum, they could move forward, reconciled to the outcome. They could tell themselves they had lost a fair battle.

A similar conclusion could apply if, in a variant potential future scenario, it were Remain that won the second referendum, even if just by a narrow margin. Again, there’s no inherent reason why that conclusion would lead to ongoing bitterness. Again, it depends, not on the numerical result, but on the calibre of the arguments raised during the campaigns.

Not just a re-run

Various critics of the idea of a second referendum are doubtful that anything positive could arise from a new round of campaigning. It would just be a re-run of the previous campaign, they say, perhaps with a few people changing their minds. Nothing essentially new could arise. Forget healing. We would just get more chaos.

But I give a much more positive assessment to the idea of a second, better, referendum.

For one reason, people have learned a great deal in the intervening 30 months. Opinions which could be seen as plausible two years ago, have long since been shown up as deeply wrong. As an example, consider the now thoroughly discredited claim that it would be “the easiest deal ever” to negotiate Britain’s exit from the EU (witness “EU trade deal ‘easiest in human history'” and “All the times David Davis said that Brexit was simple”.) On such matters, we’re all wiser now.

But more fundamentally, it’s now widely recognised that it’s in everyone’s interest to cool down the debate, rather than letting matters be inflamed further.

The falsification principle

As a step away from ideology to objectivity, participants in the debate should start by reflecting long and hard about which circumstances would cause them to change their minds. This is in line with the falsification principle of science: people aspiring to scientific methods should set out in advance which experimental findings would cause them to seriously rethink their currently favoured theories.

Therefore, people favouring Remain should describe the circumstances that would cause them to consider switching to Leave instead. In this way, they would identify the potentially strongest arguments in favour of Leave. For example, to my mind, the strongest argument in favour of Leave would be if the structural weakness of the eurozone were shown to be likely to lead to huge financial chaos, of a sort that the UK could best hope to escape by being outside of the EU altogether.

Likewise, people favouring Leave should describe the circumstances that would cause them to consider switching to Remain instead. For example, they might be prepared to alter their vote if they gained confidence in the flexibility and genuineness of EU reform proposals.

Debate participants unable to set out such a “falsifying circumstance” would have to acknowledge they are driven by ideology, rather being open to new findings.

Preparing to build bridges

In parallel, participants in both sides of the debate need to set out proposals for how the UK could unwind from any state of internal hostility after the campaign was concluded.

To this end, supporters of Remain need to acknowledge that many on the Leave side are profoundly ill at ease with what they see as the direction of social development. More than that, Remain supporters need to be ready to commit to a credible programme to address key causes of this alienation, including the bitter perception many people have of being “left behind”.

Similarly, supporters of Leave need to acknowledge that many on the Remain side are profoundly ill at ease with the potential unravelling of processes of multilateral decisions, in a post-Brexit race-to-the bottom world of increasing deregulation.

Towards superdemocracy

That’s the vision – the vision of a better politics being expressed in a better referendum.

It’s a vision that goes beyond democracy-as-counting-votes. It’s a vision of emerging superdemocracy (to use a term that has featured in the last two Transpolitica books – Transcending Politics and Sustainable Superabundance).

Is this vision credible? Or are we doomed to a politics dominated by feelings of vengeance and obliteration?

That is, is a second referendum likely to lead to even greater chaos, or to healing?

Personal leadership

To an extent, the answer will be influenced by the personal qualities of the people leading each side of the debate. Do these people have high personal integrity? Are they open to learning? Are they able to build bridges? Do they have high emotional intelligence? Or are they, instead, obsessive and self-serving?

The answer (chaos or healing) will also depend on how the media conducts itself. Is the media looking for high drama? Will it seek out and amplify the most inflammatory soundbites? Or will it show restraint and care?

To my mind, everyone who cares about the future of the UK has to get behind the processes of healing, rather than the processes of chaos.

That means a commitment to debating honestly – to considering the merits and demerits of different arguments fairly, rather than with a partisan spirit.

This also means a commitment to building bridges – to discovering shared common values, even with people who express views very differently to our own.

It won’t be easy. But the cost of failure would be enormous.

Image source: “Big Ben at Sunset” – Photo by M N on Unsplash

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