Endnotes

For convenience of readers, this page lists all the endnotes from Transcending Politics, in easily clickable form.

  1. “An Intellectual Entente” http://harvardmagazine.com/breaking-news/james-watson-edward-o-wilson-intellectual-entente
  2. “A Letter to Mother Nature: Amendments to the Human Constitution” http://strategicphilosophy.blogspot.co.uk/2009/05/its-about-ten-years-since-i-wrote.html
  3. “Definitions of Transhumanism” https://web.archive.org/web/19970712091927/http://www.aleph.se/Trans/Intro/definitions.html
  4. “Extropy Institute Neologisms” https://web.archive.org/web/19980110162302/http:/www.extropy.com/neologo.htm
  5. “The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/16287039-the-transhumanist-reader.
  6. “Transhumanism” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Transhumanism
  7. “An Introduction to Transhumanism” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bTMS9y8OVuY
  8. “2017 update to the Technoprogressive Declaration” https://transvision-conference.org/tpdec2017/
  9. “Lord Acton Quote Archive” https://acton.org/research/lord-acton-quote-archive
  10. This saying is from the New Testament: http://biblehub.com/matthew/16-26.htm
  11. “An Intellectual Entente” http://harvardmagazine.com/breaking-news/james-watson-edward-o-wilson-intellectual-entente
  12. This phrase is an adaptation of a similar saying by Marc Andreessen: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111903480904576512250915629460
  13. “Joseph de Maistre” https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Joseph_de_Maistre
  14. “Up-Wingers: A Futurist Manifesto” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/931652.Up_Wingers
  15. “The Proactionary Imperative: A Foundation for Transhumanism” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20696118-the-proactionary-imperative
  16. “Plato’s Philosopher Kings” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALXsaT6bqL0
  17. “What about technocracy?” http://www.technocracyinc.org/what-about-technocracy/
  18. “Scientocracy: Policy making that reflects human nature” https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/scientocracy/200901/scientocracy-policy-making-reflects-human-nature
  19. “Britain has had enough of experts, says Gove” https://www.ft.com/content/3be49734-29cb-11e6-83e4-abc22d5d108c
  20. “Trofim Lysenko” http://www.nndb.com/people/828/000050678/
  21. “Techies have been trying to replace politicians for decades” https://www.wired.com/2015/06/technocracy-inc/
  22. An archive of the first Transpolitica newsletter is available at https://transpolitica.org/2015/01/28/transpolitica-news-1/
  23. “Preamble” https://transpolitica.org/manifesto/
  24. “Transpolitica: Anticipating tomorrow’s politics” https://transpolitica.org/
  25. For example, that statement was made at a conference in New York in October 2014, by Alexis Ohanian, the founder of Reddit: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20141022-are-we-getting-smarter
  26. “Political Lying” http://www.bartleby.com/209/633.html
  27. “President Trump has made 1,628 false or misleading claims over 298 days” https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2017/11/14/president-trump-has-made-1628-false-or-misleading-claims-over-298-days/
  28. “Trump’s Lies vs. Obama’s” https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/12/14/opinion/sunday/trump-lies-obama-who-is-worse.html
  29. “Killing the Truth: How Trump’s Attack on the Free Press Endangers Democracy” https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/killing-the-truth-how-trumps-attack-on-the-free-press_us_58ba1469e4b02eac8876cebf
  30. “Why Trump’s supporters will never abandon him” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-41028733
  31. “Upton Sinclair” https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Upton_Sinclair
  32. “Burn the rich: a recent study suggests that envy comes naturally”: http://reason.com/archives/2002/06/19/burn-the-rich
  33. “Are People Willing to Pay to Reduce Others’ Incomes?” http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/ajoswald/finaljuly13paris.pdf (PDF)
  34. “My Final Answer – ‘Kill My Neighbour’s Goat’” http://www.rferl.org/a/1052770.html
  35. “Meditation 17”, quoted in https://qz.com/716088/john-donnes-solemn-400-year-old-poem-against-isolationism-is-resonating-with-brits-today/
  36. “Pence’s Past” http://www.snopes.com/mike-pences-gay-past/
  37. “List of cognitive biases” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases
  38. “Only the Paranoid Survive” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/66863.Only_the_Paranoid_Survive
  39. “The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/11107244-the-better-angels-of-our-nature
  40. “Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/31138556-homo-deus
  41. “Abundance: The Future is Brighter Than You Think” http://www.diamandis.com/abundance
  42. “A Single Death is a Tragedy; a Million Deaths is a Statistic” http://quoteinvestigator.com/2010/05/21/death-statistic/
  43. “Brave New World: A defence of paradise-engineering”, by David Pearce: https://www.huxley.net/
  44. “Statement from the new Prime Minister Theresa May” https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/statement-from-the-new-prime-minister-theresa-may
  45.  “The greatest motivational poster ever?” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7869458.stm
  46. “It was the best of times” http://www.nationalreview.com/article/443374/2016-best-year-ever
  47. “Was 2016 the Best Year Ever?” https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/inequality-and-climate-change-exaggeration-by-bjorn-lomborg-2016-12
  48. “The Infinite Resource” http://rameznaam.com/the-infinite-resource/
  49. “State of the Future version 19.1” http://www.millennium-project.org/state-of-the-future-version-19-1/
  50. “State of the Future Index” http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/SOFI.html
  51. “The Great Illusion” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2462426.The_Great_Illusion
  52. “World War One: First war was impossible, then inevitable” http://blogs.reuters.com/anatole-kaletsky/2014/06/27/world-war-one-first-war-was-impossible-then-inevitable/
  53. Quote included in “A mirror on the crisis” http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-ascent-of-money-by-niall-ferguson-980013.html
  54. “The Executive Who Brought Down AIG” http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/story?id=7210007
  55. “Accidental Nuclear War: A Timeline of Close Calls” http://futureoflife.org/background/nuclear-close-calls-a-timeline/
  56. “Science Debunked Meteorites” https://www.sott.net/article/238325-Science-Debunked-Meteorites
  57. “Scientific group-think: the meteorite case” http://arthur.shumwaysmith.com/life/content/scientific_group_think_the_meteorite_case
  58. “Museums that threw away their meteorite collections” http://ersby.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/museums-that-threw-away-their-meteorite.html
  59. “As Hiroshima smouldered, our atom bomb scientists suffered remorse” http://www.newsweek.com/hiroshima-smouldered-our-atom-bomb-scientists-suffered-remorse-360125
  60. “Hiroshima: The medical aftermath of the day that changed the world” http://hiroshima.australiandoctor.com.au/
  61. “Sidelining Science Since Day One” https://www.ucsusa.org/center-science-and-democracy/promoting-scientific-integrity/sidelining-science-from-day-one
  62. “The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists” https://www.vox.com/2016/7/14/12016710/science-challeges-research-funding-peer-review-process
  63. “Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/31487.Unweaving_the_Rainbow
  64. “The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy” http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/259572/eib3_1_.pdf
  65. “The Demographics of the U.S. Equine Population” http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/hsp/soaiv_07_ch10.pdf
  66. “Technology and people: The great job-creating machine” https://www2.deloitte.com/uk/en/pages/finance/articles/technology-and-people.html
  67. “Technology has created more jobs than it has destroyed, says 140 years of data” https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/aug/17/technology-created-more-jobs-than-destroyed-140-years-data-census
  68. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/949299.The_New_Division_of_Labor
  69. “Uber’s Self-Driving Truck Makes Its First Delivery: 50,000 Beers” https://www.wired.com/2016/10/ubers-self-driving-truck-makes-first-delivery-50000-beers/
  70. “Microsoft, Google Beat Humans at Image Recognition” http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1325712
  71. “The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/24612233-the-master-algorithm
  72. “A welcome from the President, David Levy” http://icga.leidenuniv.nl/?page_id=24
  73. “David Levy speaker preview of Anticipating 2025” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-Rk6rtLc-E
  74. “‘Huge leap forward’ Computer that mimics human brain beats professional at game of Go” http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/01/huge-leap-forward-computer-mimics-human-brain-beats-professional-game-go
  75. “The Mystery of Go, the Ancient Game That Computers Still Can’t Win” https://www.wired.com/2014/05/the-world-of-computer-go/
  76. “The Mystery of Go, the Ancient Game That Computers Still Can’t Win” https://www.wired.com/2014/05/the-world-of-computer-go/
  77. “Artificial Intuition: The Improbable Deep Learning Revolution” https://gumroad.com/l/IHDj
  78. “What the AI Behind AlphaGo Can Teach Us About Being Human” https://www.wired.com/2016/05/google-alpha-go-ai/
  79. “Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/31213179-heart-of-the-machine
  80. “Rise of the robots: 60,000 workers culled from just one factory as China’s struggling electronics hub turns to artificial intelligence” http://www.scmp.com/news/china/economy/article/1949918/rise-robots-60000-workers-culled-just-one-factory-chinas
  81. “Japanese company replaces office workers with artificial intelligence” https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jan/05/japanese-company-replaces-office-workers-artificial-intelligence-ai-fukoku-mutual-life-insurance
  82. “Khosla explains his ‘robots replacing doctors’ comment” http://venturebeat.com/2013/12/05/khosla-explains-his-robots-replacing-doctors-comment-and-goes-on-the-hunt-for-data-scientists/
  83. “Speculations and musings of a technology optimist” http://www.khoslaventures.com/20-percent-doctor-included-speculations-and-musings-of-a-technology-optimist
  84. “The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/23462787-the-future-of-the-professions
  85. “Google a step closer to developing machines with human-like intelligence” https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/may/21/google-a-step-closer-to-developing-machines-with-human-like-intelligence
  86. “James Bessen on Learning by Doing” http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2016/05/james_bessen_on.html
  87. “Why Robots Will Be The Biggest Job Creators In World History” http://www.forbes.com/sites/johntamny/2015/03/01/why-robots-will-be-the-biggest-job-creators-in-history
  88. “Occupational outlook handbook” https://www.bls.gov/ooh/office-and-administrative-support/tellers.htm#tab-6
  89. “The Horses, ‘going to the Dogs’, from George Cruikshank’s Scraps and Sketches” https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-horses-going-to-the-dogs-from-george-cruikshanks-scraps-and-sketches
  90. Quoted in “Horses at Work: Harnessing Power in Industrial America” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/5972226-horses-at-work
  91. “The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26634594-the-rise-and-fall-of-american-growth
  92. “Museum of the City of New York” http://collections.mcny.org
  93. “5th Ave. – Easter, ‘13” http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ggbain.11656/
  94. “Technology and inequality” http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/531726/technology-and-inequality/
  95. “The Second Machine Age” http://secondmachineage.com/
  96. “The Economics of Superstars” http://home.uchicago.edu/~vlima/courses/econ201/Superstars.pdf
  97. “The Pitchforks Are Coming… For Us Plutocrats” http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/06/the-pitchforks-are-coming-for-us-plutocrats-108014.html
  98. “Why Robots Will Be The Biggest Job Creators In World History” http://www.forbes.com/sites/johntamny/2015/03/01/why-robots-will-be-the-biggest-job-creators-in-history
  99. “Utopia for Realists: And How We Can Get There” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/36690518-utopia-for-realists
  100. “A Commitment to Philanthropy” https://givingpledge.org
  101. “The iPhone at 10: How the smartphone became so smart” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-38320198
  102. “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren” http://www.econ.yale.edu/smith/econ116a/keynes1.pdf
  103. “Roy Amara, forecaster, RIP” http://boingboing.net/2008/01/03/roy-amara-forecaster.html
  104. “A Conversation with Kevin Kelly” http://edge.org/conversation/the-technium
  105. “Know Your Baby is Okay” http://www.owletcare.com/
  106. “Consumer Alert: Consumer Affairs Warns Parents to Secure Video Baby Monitors” http://www1.nyc.gov/site/dca/media/pr012716.page
  107. “Hacker disables more than 100 cars remotely” https://www.wired.com/2010/03/hacker-bricks-cars/
  108. “Pacemaker hack can deliver deadly 830-volt jolt” http://www.computerworld.com/article/2492453/malware-vulnerabilities/pacemaker-hack-can-deliver-deadly-830-volt-jolt.html
  109. “Dick Cheney’s Heart” http://www.cbsnews.com/news/dick-cheneys-heart/
  110. “China Hackers Hit U.S. Chamber” https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204058404577110541568535300
  111. “CIA Chief: We’ll Spy on You Through Your Dishwasher” https://www.wired.com/2012/03/petraeus-tv-remote/
  112. “Another IoT botnet with pieces of Mirai embedded can do DDoS from 100k devices” https://www.networkworld.com/article/3195900/security/another-iot-botnet-with-pieces-of-mirai-embedded-can-do-ddos-from-100k-devices.html
  113. “Google’s DeepMind AI can lip-read TV shows better than a pro” https://www.newscientist.com/article/2113299-googles-deepmind-ai-can-lip-read-tv-shows-better-than-a-pro/
  114. “How Web Sites Vary Prices Based on Your Information (and What You Can Do About It)” https://lifehacker.com/5973689/how-web-sites-vary-prices-based-on-your-information-and-what-you-can-do-about-it
  115. “State of the Future”: http://millennium-project.org/millennium/201314SOF.html
  116. https://twitter.com/tom_peters/status/820440755214827521
  117. https://twitter.com/tom_peters/status/820441228101591042
  118. https://twitter.com/tom_peters/status/820463464057446400
  119. https://twitter.com/tom_peters/status/820462055601762304
  120. “About Bruce Schneier” https://www.schneier.com/blog/about/
  121. “Click Here to Kill Everyone” http://nymag.com/selectall/2017/01/the-internet-of-things-dangerous-future-bruce-schneier.html
  122. “Future Crimes” http://www.futurecrimesbook.com/
  123. “About Marc Goodman” http://www.marcgoodman.net/about/
  124. “Singularity 1on1: Marc Goodman on Future Crimes” https://www.singularityweblog.com/marc-goodman-on-future-crimes-2/
  125. “We Need a Manhattan Project for Cyber Security” http://www.marcgoodman.net/2014/11/14/medium-we-need-a-manhattan-project-for-cyber-security/
  126. “March of the terminators: Robot warriors are no longer sci-fi but reality. So what happens when they turn their guns on us?” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1182910/March-terminators-Robot-warriors-longer-sci-fi-reality-So-happens-turn-guns-us.html
  127. “The problem” http://www.stopkillerrobots.org/the-problem/
  128. See for example the points made by Calum Chace in “The killer robots have arrived: but could they also save your life?” http://metro.co.uk/2018/01/29/the-killer-robots-have-arrived-but-could-they-also-save-your-life-7265785/
  129. “Autonomous weapons: An open letter from AI & robotics researchers” https://futureoflife.org/open-letter-autonomous-weapons/
  130. “Click Here to Kill Everyone” http://nymag.com/selectall/2017/01/the-internet-of-things-dangerous-future-bruce-schneier.html
  131. “Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34272565-life-3-0
  132. “Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/17286699-our-final-invention
  133. “Surviving AI: The promise and peril of artificial intelligence” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26254196-surviving-ai
  134. “The Technological Singularity” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26017445-the-technological-singularity
  135. “Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20527133-superintelligence
  136. “Defining Intelligence” https://www.edge.org/conversation/stuart_russell-defining-intelligence
  137. “Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/27543.Artificial_Intelligence
  138. “Anniversary – 80 years ago, Leo Szilard envisioned neutron chain reaction” http://ansnuclearcafe.org/2013/09/17/anniversary-80-years-ago-leo-szliard-envisioned-neutron-chain-reaction
  139. “AI: The Story So Far”, slides by Stuart Russell https://intelligence.org/files/csrbai/russell-slides.pdf
  140. “Thinking about the unthinkable” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/179016.Thinking_about_the_Unthinkable
  141. “’Whoever leads in AI will rule the world’: Putin to Russian children on Knowledge Day” https://www.rt.com/news/401731-ai-rule-world-putin/
  142. “World Economic Forum Annual Meeting” https://www.weforum.org/events/world-economic-forum-annual-meeting-2017
  143. “Future of life institute” https://futureoflife.org/
  144. “Beneficial AI 2017” https://futureoflife.org/bai-2017/
  145. “Asilomar AI principles” https://futureoflife.org/ai-principles/
  146. “AI safety conference in Puerto Rico” https://futureoflife.org/2015/10/12/ai-safety-conference-in-puerto-rico/
  147. https://www.partnershiponai.org/
  148. “China’s Artificial-Intelligence Boom” https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/02/china-artificial-intelligence/516615/
  149. “Get serious about obesity or bankrupt the NHS – Simon Stevens” https://www.england.nhs.uk/2014/09/serious-about-obesity/
  150. “Billions wasted as drugs bill threatens to bankrupt the NHS, experts say” http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/736856/Billions-wasted-drugs-bill-threatens-bankrupt-NHS-experts-say
  151. “Dear Prime Minister: Final Letter” https://www.scribd.com/document/368914596/Final-Letter
  152. “NHS waiting list could soar to 5m without urgent cash, chief warns” https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/08/nhs-chief-warns-waiting-lists-could-hit-5m-without-extra-cash
  153. “This is the No. 1 reason Americans file for bankruptcy” https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/personalfinance/2017/05/05/this-is-the-no-1-reason-americans-file-for-bankruptcy/101148136/
  154. “The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/23131174-the-digital-doctor
  155. “NHS pulls the plug on its 11bn IT system” http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/nhs-pulls-the-plug-on-its-11bn-it-system-2330906.html
  156. “Oh dear, is this another costly IT failure?” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/10986642/Oh-dear-is-this-another-costly-IT-failure.html
  157. “Now, Cancer becomes one of the most expensive and riskiest diseases to treat” http://www.nationaldailypress.com/2016/05/01/now-cancer-become-one-of-the-most-expensive-and-riskiest-diseases-to-treat/
  158. “Low-Income Diabetics Paying High Price For Insulin” http://c-hit.org/2016/04/10/low-income-diabetics-paying-high-price-for-insulin/
  159. “The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome” https://www.genome.gov/sequencingcosts/
  160. “Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency” http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v11/n3/full/nrd3681.html
  161. “Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gompertz%E2%80%93Makeham_law_of_mortality
  162. Analysis from https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/lifeexpectancies/datasets/nationallifetablesunitedkingdomreferencetables
  163. “The Innovator’s Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/3487850-the-innovator-s-prescription
  164. “Factors in the Drop in United States Infant Mortality: 1900-1940” http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1070&context=hsshonors
  165. “Infant mortality decline in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: the role of market milk” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17951891
  166. “American Amnesia: Business, Government, and the Forgotten Roots of Our Prosperity” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/25814409-american-amnesia
  167. “Dr. Semmelweis’ Biography” http://semmelweis.org/about/dr-semmelweis-biography/
  168. “Views on puerperal fever” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Braun_(obstetrician)#Views_on_puerperal_fever
  169. “Cigarettes were once ‘physician’ tested, approved” http://www.healio.com/hematology-oncology/news/print/hemonc-today/%7B241d62a7-fe6e-4c5b-9fed-a33cc6e4bd7c%7D/cigarettes-were-once-physician-tested-approved
  170. “The Abolition of Aging: The forthcoming radical extension of healthy human longevity” https://theabolitionofaging.com/
  171. “Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/519781.Ending_Aging
  172. “Juvenescence: Investing in the Age of Longevity” https://www.juvenescence-book.com/
  173. “In pursuit of the Longevity Dividend” http://sjayolshansky.com/sjo/Background_files/TheScientist.pdf
  174. “The Value of Health and Longevity” https://web.archive.org/web/20061018172529/http://www.econ.yale.edu/seminars/labor/lap04-05/topel032505.pdf
  175. “Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories” https://report.nih.gov/categorical_spending.aspx
  176. “SENS Research Foundation” http://www.sens.org/
  177. “How Much Does It Cost To Find A Higgs Boson?” http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2012/07/05/how-much-does-it-cost-to-find-a-higgs-boson/
  178. “Why Not Artificial Wombs?” http://www.thenewatlantis.com/docLib/TNA03-Rosen.pdf
  179. “Transhumanism” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Transhumanism
  180. “Humanity+” http://humanityplus.org/
  181. “Updated planetary boundaries framework shows four of nine boundaries now crossed” http://www.futureearth.org/news/updated-planetary-boundaries-framework-shows-four-nine-boundaries-now-crossed
  182. “Powering the planet: Chemical challenges solar energy utilization” http://www.pnas.org/content/103/43/15729.long
  183. “Could the desert sun power the world?” https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/dec/11/sahara-solar-panels-green-electricity
  184. “Total Surface Area Required to Fuel the World With Solar” http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/127
  185. “Growth of photovoltaics” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_of_photovoltaics
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  190. “Seeing the light: How India is embracing solar power” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-39844446
  191. “European Energy Auctions Yield Ever-Lower Wind Energy Prices In Germany & Spain” https://cleantechnica.com/2017/05/22/european-energy-auctions-yield-ever-lower-wind-energy-prices-germany-spain/
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  193. “Solar power breaks UK records thanks to sunny weather” https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/may/26/solar-power-breaks-uk-records-thanks-sunny-weather
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  198. “Russian Combat Medals Put Lie To Putin’s Claim Of No Russian Troops In Ukraine” https://www.forbes.com/sites/paulroderickgregory/2016/09/06/russian-combat-medals-put-lie-to-putins-claim-of-no-russian-troops-in-ukraine
  199. “The Press and immigration: reporting the news or fanning the flames of hatred?” http://www.sub-scribe.co.uk/2016/09/the-press-and-immigration-reporting.html
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  205. “Wind farm subsidies axed ‘to stop turbines covering beautiful countryside’” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/energy/windpower/11685082/Wind-farm-subsidies-axed-to-stop-turbines-covering-beautiful-countryside.html
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  212. “Historic Heat Wave Sweeps Asia, the Middle East and Europe” https://www.wunderground.com/cat6/historic-heat-wave-sweeps-asia-middle-east-and-europe
  213. “The Younger Dryas” https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/abrupt-climate-change/The%20Younger%20Dryas
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  219. “Congestion charge” https://tfl.gov.uk/modes/driving/congestion-charge
  220. “CBO Testimony” https://web.archive.org/web/20080214064914/http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdoc.cfm?index=4197
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  224. “Investor lessons from a market bubble that cost Isaac Newton a bundle”: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/investor-lessons-from-a-market-bubble-that-cost-isaac-newton-a-bundle-2016-08-25
  225. “The Myths of the South Sea Bubble”: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/12397/1/12397.pdf
  226. “How Isaac Newton went flat broke chasing a stock bubble”: https://www.sovereignman.com/finance/how-isaac-newton-went-flat-broke-chasing-a-stock-bubble-13268/
  227. “Panic of 1857”: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1857
  228. “The slumps that shaped modern finance”: http://www.economist.com/news/essays/21600451-finance-not-merely-prone-crises-it-shaped-them-five-historical-crises-show-how-aspects-today-s-fina
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  230. “On the Brink”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7098979-on-the-brink
  231. “Bank of Cyprus haircut could reach 60%”: https://www.ft.com/content/4a1bb1d6-9926-11e2-af84-00144feabdc0
  232. “Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan” https://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/1996/19961205.htm
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  234. “The Mississippi Bubble of 1718-1720”: http://www.thebubblebubble.com/mississippi-bubble/
  235. “The Plot Between Ignorance and Arrogance”: https://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/09/30/the-plot-between-ignorance-and-arrogance/
  236. “1927-1933 Chart of Pompous Prognosticators”: http://www.gold-eagle.com/article/1927-1933-chart-pompous-prognosticators
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  238. “Macroeconomic Priorities”: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~dbackus/Taxes/Lucas%20priorities%20AER%2003.pdf
  239. “This is how we let the credit crunch happen, Ma’am …”: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/jul/26/monarchy-credit-crunch
  240. “The economic forecasters’ failing vision”: https://www.ft.com/content/50007754-ca35-11dd-93e5-000077b07658?mhq5j=e3
  241. “Greenspan – I was wrong about the economy. Sort of”: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2008/oct/24/economics-creditcrunch-federal-reserve-greenspan
  242. “The End of Alchemy”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/30231791-the-end-of-alchemy
  243. “Interview with Dr. Rudi Dornbusch”: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mexico/interviews/dornbusch.html
  244. “The Hemingway Law of Motion: Gradually, then Suddenly”: http://conversableeconomist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/the-hemingway-law-of-motion-gradually.html
  245. “Four Dumb Things Smart Leaders Say (And What You Can Learn From Them)”: https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2017/02/22/four-dumb-things-smart-leaders-say-and-what-you-can-learn-from-them/
  246. “Technology vs. Humanity: Futurist Gerd Leonhard’s new Book”: http://www.techvshuman.com/read-preview/
  247. “How Did You Go Bankrupt? Hemingway, China And The EU”: http://www.valuewalk.com/2014/06/how-did-you-go-bankrupt/?all=1
  248. That term was coined in 2003 by Warren Buffett: http://www.fintools.com/docs/Warren%20Buffet%20on%20Derivatives.pdf
  249. “Can We Avoid Another Financial Crisis?” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/35121849-can-we-avoid-another-financial-crisis
  250. “Flash Crash – Don’t Fall for Market ‘Spoofers’”: http://www.valuewalk.com/2017/05/flash-crash-dont-fall-for-market-spoofers/
  251. “The Coming Cryptocurrency Crash”: https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertwolcott/2017/07/07/the-coming-cryptocurrency-crash-and-why-its-a-good-thing/
  252. “What’s the ultimatum game?” http://money.howstuffworks.com/ultimatum-game.htm
  253. “Fixing Economics”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/31436895-fixing-economics
  254. “The Role of Fairness in Wage Determination”: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2535192
  255. “Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/26530355-misbehaving
  256. “The enduring certainty of radical uncertainty”: https://www.ft.com/content/ec5520c4-fb23-11e5-8f41-df5bda8beb40
  257. “The key to industrial capitalism: limited liability”: http://www.economist.com/node/347323
  258. “Monetary metamorphosis”: http://www.economist.com/node/242113
  259. 1 Timothy 6:10: http://biblehub.com/1_timothy/6-10.htm
  260. “Celebrity Chef Mario Batali Says Bankers As Bad As Hitler, Stalin”: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffbercovici/2011/11/08/celebrity-chef-mario-batali-says-bankers-as-bad-as-hitler-stalin
  261. “Adults In The Room: My Battle With Europe’s Deep Establishment”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34673467-adults-in-the-room
  262. “What Happens When Money Breaks the Rules?” http://www.slate.com/articles/business/the_next_20/2016/09/saving_glut_and_the_failure_of_capital_in_the_21st_century.html
  263. “The sequel to the global financial crisis is here: High credit ratings have hidden a structural instability”: https://www.ft.com/content/95808118-662e-11e7-9a66-93fb352ba1fe
  264. “Other People’s Money: The Real Business of Finance”: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/24612279-other-people-s-money
  265. Genesis 1:31 http://biblehub.com/genesis/1-31.htm
  266. “Adam Smith” https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Adam_Smith
  267. “The Great Lightbulb Conspiracy” http://spectrum.ieee.org/geek-life/history/the-great-lightbulb-conspiracy
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  270. “Standard Oil” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Oil#Monopoly_charges_and_anti-trust_legislation
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  273. “A Cotton Manufacturer on Hours of Labor” http://www.victorianweb.org/history/workers2.html
  274. Quoted in “The Factory System” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/5351760-the-factory-system
  275. “The Jungle” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/41681.The_Jungle
  276. “The Dissipated Life of William A. Rockefeller” https://www.americanhistoryusa.com/strange-life-of-william-rockefeller/
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  280. “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity” http://www.teebweb.org/
  281. “Max Born: The Nobel prize winning physicist’s advice on what causes ‘all evil’” http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/max-born-quantum-physics-rule-google-doodle-single-truth-ceremony-knowledge-nazis-germany-evil-a8103961.html
  282. “Pharmocracy: How Corrupt Deals and Misguided Medical Regulations Are Bankrupting America–And What to Do about It” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12615698-pharmocracy
  283. “How Regulation of Medicine is Bankrupting the United States and What Congress Can Do to Stop It” http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2011/10/Regulation-of-Medicine-is-Bankrupting-the-United-States-What-Congress-Can-Do-to-Stop-It/Page-01
  284. “Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/335451.Ashes_to_Ashes
  285. “Number of smokers in England drops to all-time low” https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/sep/20/number-of-uk-smokers-falls-to-lowest-level
  286. “Big Tobacco: A history of its decline” http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/06/19/tobacco.decline/index.html
  287. “Are Teenagers Replacing Drugs With Smartphones?” https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/13/health/teenagers-drugs-smartphones.html?_r=0
  288. “How Big Tobacco got away with the Crime of the Century” https://theloungeisback.wordpress.com/2011/03/28/how-big-tobacco-got-away-with-the-crime-of-the-century/
  289. “Andrew S. Fastow – Enron Corp” https://web.archive.org/web/20040820122148/http://www.cfo.com/printable/article.cfm/2989389
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  292. “Enron’s collapse: The politicians” http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/21/us/enron-s-collapse-politicians-enron-spread-contributions-both-sides-aisle.html?mcubz=1
  293. “Iceland Has Jailed 29 Bankers” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stefan-simanowitz/iceland-has-jailed-29-bankers_b_8908536.html
  294. “Samsung heir sentenced to five years in jail after corruption conviction” https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/25/samsung-heir-lee-jae-yong-found-guilty-of-corruption
  295. “Crowds vs Swarms – which is smarter?” http://unanimous.ai/crowds-vs-swarms-which-is-smarter/
  296. “German federal election, March 1933” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_federal_election,_March_1933
  297. “Was Hitler democratically elected?” http://diebesteallerzeiten.de/blog/2009/02/19/was-hitler-democratically-elected/
  298. “German referendum, 1934” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_referendum,_1934
  299. “Hitler Was Elected President in a Democratic Election: Myth” http://factmyth.com/factoids/hitler-was-elected-in-a-democratic-election/
  300. “History of Venezuela (1999–present)” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Venezuela_(1999%E2%80%93present)
  301. “Venezuela: Chávez’s Authoritarian Legacy” https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/03/05/venezuela-chavezs-authoritarian-legacy
  302. “Algerian legislative election, 1991” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_legislative_election,_1991
  303. “Algerian lessons for the Tunisian crisis” https://www.opendemocracy.net/north-africa-west-asia/hicham-yezza/how-to-be-different-together-algerian-lessons-for-tunisian-crisis
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  305. “Gettysburg Address” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Address
  306. “10 of the best Tony Benn quotes – as picked by our readers” https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/mar/15/10-of-the-best-tony-benn-quotes-as-picked-by-our-readers
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  308. “Lord Acton Quote Archive” https://acton.org/research/lord-acton-quote-archive
  309. “Famous Words Churchill Never Said” https://www.winstonchurchill.org/publications/finest-hour/finest-hour-141/history-detectives-red-herrings-famous-words-churchill-never-said
  310. “The right to vote should be restricted to those with knowledge” https://aeon.co/ideas/the-right-to-vote-should-be-restricted-to-those-with-knowledge
  311. “Don’t let ignorant people vote” http://edition.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/04/12/granderson.ignorant.vote/index.html
  312. “Democracy vs. Epistocracy” https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2016/09/03/democracy-vs-epistacracy/
  313. “Against Epistocracy: For True Democracy” http://www.thecritique.com/articles/against-epistocracy/
  314. “Chartism” on the Victorian Web: https://web.archive.org/web/20080219044548/http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chartism.html
  315. “Our democracy no longer represents the people; here’s how we fix it” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJy8vTu66tE
  316. “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens” https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/perspectives-on-politics/article/testing-theories-of-american-politics-elites-interest-groups-and-average-citizens/62327F513959D0A304D4893B382B992B
  317. “Is America an Oligarchy?” https://www.newyorker.com/news/john-cassidy/is-america-an-oligarchy
  318. “Daring Democracy: Igniting Power, Meaning, and Connection for the America We Want” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34002224-daring-democracy
  319. “Electoral System (Chamber 1)” http://aceproject.org/epic-en/CDTable?question=ES005&set_language=en
  320. “Democracy in crisis” https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2018
  321. “Electoral Systems around the World” http://www.fairvote.org/research_electoralsystems_world
  322. “Electoral reform” https://www.electoral-reform.org.uk/campaigns/electoral-reform/
  323. “Athenian Democracy” https://www.ancient.eu/Athenian_Democracy/
  324. “Allotment and Democracy in Ancient Greece” http://www.booksandideas.net/Allotment-and-Democracy-in-Ancient.html
  325. “The End of Politicians: Time for a Real Democracy” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34518675-the-end-of-politicians
  326. “The Sortition Foundation” http://www.sortitionfoundation.org/
  327. “What is sortition?” http://www.sortitionfoundation.org/what_is_sortition
  328. “Should there be juries in fraud cases?” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-39877171
  329. “Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12158480-why-nations-fail
  330. “Why Nations Fail – Schwartz Lecture” http://economics.mit.edu/files/6699
  331. “Creative destruction” https://economics.mit.edu/files/1785
  332. “Prisoner’s Dilemma: John Von Neumann, Game Theory and the Puzzle of the Bomb” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/29506.Prisoner_s_Dilemma
  333. “Leviathan”, Chapter XIII: http://www.bartleby.com/34/5/13.html
  334. “Leviathan”, Chapter XVII: http://studymore.org.uk/xhob17.htm
  335. “The End of History and the Last Man” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/57981.The_End_of_History_and_the_Last_Man
  336. “The history at the end of history” https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/apr/03/thehistoryattheendofhist
  337. “The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1911.The_World_Is_Flat
  338. “Red Spy Queen – the story of Elizabeth Bentley” http://scandalouswoman.blogspot.com/2008/07/elizabeth-bentley-red-spy-queen.html
  339. “Judge Kaufman’s Statement Upon Sentencing the Rosenbergs” http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROS_SENT.HTM
  340. “Reds under the bed” http://alphahistory.com/coldwar/reds-under-the-bed/
  341. “Edward R. Murrow: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, See it Now (CBS-TV, March 9, 1954)” http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/murrowmccarthy.html
  342. “Comments on John Earl Haynes’ ‘The Cold War Debate Continues’” https://sites.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/comment15.htm
  343. “McCarthyism: Critical reactions” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCarthyism#Critical_reactions
  344. “TWE Remembers: Joseph McCarthy’s Wheeling Speech” https://www.cfr.org/blog/twe-remembers-joseph-mccarthys-wheeling-speech
  345. “Inaugural Address, 20 January 1961” https://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/BqXIEM9F4024ntFl7SVAjA.aspx
  346. “Fourteen Points Speech” https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Fourteen_Points_Speech
  347. “Ho Chi Minh Documents on the Era of the First World War” http://vietnamwar.lib.umb.edu/origins/docs/Lansing.html
  348. “Will Dyson” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_Dyson
  349. “The UN and the Hypocrisy of Power” http://www.consortiumnews.com/2010/111310a.html
  350. “Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation” http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm
  351. “Intelligence Report on Russian Hacking” https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/01/06/us/politics/document-russia-hacking-report-intelligence-agencies.html
  352. “Russia used Twitter bots and trolls ‘to disrupt’ Brexit vote” https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/news/russia-used-web-posts-to-disrupt-brexit-vote-h9nv5zg6c
  353. “Russian troll describes work in the infamous misinformation factory” https://www.nbcnews.com/news/all/russian-troll-describes-work-infamous-misinformation-factory-n821486
  354. “J.J. Patrick” https://www.byline.com/journalist/jamespatrick/column
  355. “British Journalism Awards 2017” http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/british-journalism-awards-2017-nick-ferrari-is-journalist-of-the-year-full-list-of-winners/
  356. “Carole Cadwalladr” https://www.theguardian.com/profile/carolecadwalladr
  357. “No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/34814047-no-is-not-enough
  358. “2017 Lie of the Year: Russian election interference is a ‘made-up story’” http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2017/dec/12/2017-lie-year-russian-election-interference-made-s/
  359. “A history of Donald Trump’s business dealings in Russia” https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-history-of-donald-trumps-business-dealings-in-russia/2017/11/02/fb8eed22-ba9e-11e7-be94-fabb0f1e9ffb_story.html
  360. “Revealed: the $2bn offshore trail that leads to Vladimir Putin” https://www.theguardian.com/news/2016/apr/03/panama-papers-money-hidden-offshore
  361. “Why Does the Kremlin Care So Much About the Magnitsky Act?” https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/07/magnitsky-act-kremlin/535044/
  362. “How far do EU-US sanctions on Russia go?” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-28400218
  363. “What Caused the Russian Financial Crisis of 2014 and 2015” https://www.thebalance.com/what-caused-the-russian-financial-crisis-of-2014-and-2015-1979012
  364. For example, see “America’s long history of meddling in other countries’ elections” https://www.channel4.com/news/factcheck/americas-long-history-of-meddling-in-other-countries-elections
  365. “Highest death toll from a civil war” http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/highest-death-toll-from-a-civil-war
  366. “Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress” https://web.archive.org/web/20160303045342/http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RS22017.pdf
  367. “Key Figures In CIA-Crack Cocaine Scandal Begin To Come Forward” http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/gary-webb-dark-alliance_n_5961748
  368. “Stealing Elections Is All in the Game” http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/01/10/stealing-elections-is-all-in-the-game-russia-trump/
  369. “Americans can spot election meddling because they’ve been doing it for years” https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jan/05/americans-spot-election-meddling-doing-years-vladimir-putin-donald-trump
  370. “Red Notice: A True Story of High Finance, Murder, and One Man’s Fight for Justice” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/22609522-red-notice
  371. “Red Notice: How I Became Putin’s No 1 Enemy by Bill Browder” https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/mar/26/red-notice-how-i-became-putin-no-1-enemy-bill-browder-review
  372. “It Takes A Village To Determine The Origins Of An African Proverb” https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/07/30/487925796/it-takes-a-village-to-determine-the-origins-of-an-african-proverb
  373. “Smartphones and Beyond” https://smartphonesandbeyond.com/
  374. See especially Chapter 26, “February 11th” https://smartphonesandbeyond.com/chapters/part-iii/february-11th/
  375. “Did the Mail and Sun help swing the UK towards Brexit?” https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jun/24/mail-sun-uk-brexit-newspapers
  376. “The Press and immigration: reporting the news or fanning the flames of hatred?” http://www.sub-scribe.co.uk/2016/09/the-press-and-immigration-reporting.html
  377. “Stay or go – the lack of solid facts means it’s all a leap of faith” https://www.standard.co.uk/comment/comment/anthony-hilton-stay-or-go-the-lack-of-solid-facts-means-it-s-all-a-leap-of-faith-a3189151.html
  378. “Rupert Murdoch: ‘I’ve never asked any prime minister for anything’” https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/dec/19/rupert-murdoch-ive-never-asked-any-prime-minister-for-anything
  379. “How To Stop Brexit – And Make Britain Great Again” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/35720126-how-to-stop-brexit—and-make-britain-great-again
  380. “The Brexiters who put their money offshore” https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/nov/09/brexiters-put-money-offshore-tax-haven
  381. “Everything you need to know about Lexit in five minutes” http://www.politics.co.uk/blogs/2017/11/17/everything-you-need-to-know-about-lexit-in-five-minutes
  382. “Internal market and free movement – freedom of establishment and collective action initiated by a trade union” http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/legal_service/arrets/05c438_en.pdf
  383. “Dominic Cummings: how the Brexit referendum was won” https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2017/01/dominic-cummings-brexit-referendum-won/
  384. “Apollo 11 moon landing: top 15 Nasa inventions” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/5893387/Apollo-11-moon-landing-top-15-Nasa-inventions.html
  385. “Marshall Plan, 1948” https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/marshall-plan
  386. “NHS Expenditure” http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN00724
  387. “Genocide in the 20th century” http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/index.html
  388. Links purposely omitted
  389. Ephesians 4:32: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians+4%3A32
  390. “Marx’s theory of alienation” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marx%27s_theory_of_alienation
  391. “Literature and Revolution” https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=MG-981usVQEC
  392. “Communism & Democratic Socialism & the ‘New Man’” https://www.ourcivilisation.com/cooray/westdem/chap13.htm
  393. “Cogs in the Wheel: The Formation of Soviet Man” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1278847.Cogs_in_the_Wheel
  394. “This Day in History: Down to the Countryside Movement” http://www.thatsmags.com/china/post/8077/china-chronicles-up-to-the-mountains-and-down-to-the-countryside
  395. “China’s ‘lost generation’ recall hardships of Cultural Revolution” http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/24/world/asia/china-lost-generation/index.html
  396. “The Cultural Revolution: all you need to know about China’s political convulsion” https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/11/the-cultural-revolution-50-years-on-all-you-need-to-know-about-chinas-political-convulsion
  397. “Mao’s Great Leap Forward ‘killed 45 million in four years’” http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/maos-great-leap-forward-killed-45-million-in-four-years-2081630.html
  398. “Mao’s Great Famine: The History Of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-62” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/8410925-mao-s-great-famine
  399. “Looking back on the Great Leap Forward” http://www.historytoday.com/frank-dik%C3%B6tter/looking-back-great-leap-forward
  400. “Chinese Support for Khmer Rouge Grows Cooler” http://www.nytimes.com/1993/05/09/world/chinese-support-for-khmer-rouge-grows-cooler.html
  401. “Literacy and Education under the Khmer Rouge” https://gsp.yale.edu/literacy-and-education-under-khmer-rouge
  402. “The Khmer Rouge” http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1879785,00.html
  403. “How two men survived a prison where 12,000 were killed” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33096971
  404. “The Killing Fields” http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0087553/
  405. “Court Revives Convictions in Murder of ‘Killing Fields’ Survivor” http://www.metnews.com/articles/2005/tanx070805.htm
  406. “Khmer Rouge chief: babies were ‘smashed to death’” http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/khmer-rouge-chief-babies-were-smashed-to-death-1700196.html
  407. This example is discussed more fully in Chapter 3 of “The abolition of aging” https://theabolitionofaging.com/contents/
  408. “Extropy Magazines” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Extropy_Magazines
  409. “The Extropian Principles version 3.0” http://vency.com/EXtropian3.htm
  410. “Principles of Extropy version 3.11” https://web.archive.org/web/20110806105153/http://www.extropy.org/principles.htm
  411. “H+: True Transhumanism” http://www.metanexus.net/essay/h-true-transhumanism
  412. “US military successfully tests electrical brain stimulation to enhance staff skills” https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/nov/07/us-military-successfully-tests-electrical-brain-stimulation-to-enhance-staff-skills
  413. “Moral Enhancement” https://philosophynow.org/issues/91/Moral_Enhancement
  414. “The abolition of aging” https://theabolitionofaging.com/
  415. “Why Cryonics Makes Sense” https://waitbutwhy.com/2016/03/cryonics.html
  416. “Technological Resurrection: An idea ripe for discussion” https://dw2blog.com/2017/11/30/technological-resurrection-an-idea-ripe-for-discussion/
  417. “Criticism of transhumanism” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_transhumanism
  418. “The pope of transhumanism” https://www.actualized.org/forum/topic/951-transhumanism/
  419. “The Transhumanist Declaration (2.4)” https://web.archive.org/web/19980702105748/http://www.transhumanism.com/declaration.htm
  420. “Transhumanist Art Statement” https://web.archive.org/web/19980523093459/http://www.extropic-art.com/transart.htm
  421. “Transhumanist Declaration” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Transhumanist_Declaration
  422. “Biohacker Summit Program” http://biohackersummit.com/stockholm-2017/program/
  423. “Search Inside Yourself” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/12921211-search-inside-yourself
  424. “Search Inside Yourself” http://siybook.com/
  425. “Results” https://siyli.org/results
  426. “Stealing Fire” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/30317415-stealing-fire
  427. “Democratize Nirvana” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ao1jztX7Wws
  428. “Frequently Asked Questions” https://nootropics.com/frequently-asked-questions/
  429. “Psychoactive Substances Act 2016” https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/psychoactive-substances-bill-2015
  430. “Re: Psychoactive Substances Bill” https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/441400/2-7-15-_ACMD_advice_on_PS_Bill.pdf
  431. “You’re not hallucinating, MPs really did pass crazy bad drug law” https://www.newscientist.com/article/2074813-youre-not-hallucinating-mps-really-did-pass-crazy-bad-drug-law/
  432. “David Nutt: ‘The government cannot think logically about drugs’” https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2010/dec/06/david-nutt-drugs-alcohol
  433. “Theresa May’s Religion Has Made Her An ‘Extremist’ On Drugs Policy, Professor David Nutt Says” http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/theresa-mays-religion-has-made-her-an-extremist-on-drugs-professor-david-nutt-says_uk_58a6e850e4b07602ad53a8a7
  434. “Nick Clegg accuses Theresa May of tampering with drug report” https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/apr/17/nick-clegg-accuses-theresa-may-drug-report-conservatives
  435. “Lifespans Are Long Enough” https://www.intelligencesquaredus.org/debates/lifespans-are-long-enough
  436. “Transhumanism” http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/10/23/transhumanism/
  437. “Socrates’ objections to writing” http://outofthejungle.blogspot.co.uk/2007/11/socrates-objections-to-writing.html
  438. “Memorial: Karl Marx grave” https://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/karl-marx-grave
  439. “Tasks awaiting volunteers” https://transpolitica.org/projects/
  440. “The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/21314.The_Starfish_and_the_Spider
  441. “10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened” http://royal.pingdom.com/2008/09/11/10-interesting-open-source-software-forks-and-why-they-happened/
  442. “Bitcoin security model: trust by computation” http://radar.oreilly.com/2014/02/bitcoin-security-model-trust-by-computation.html
  443. “About R3” https://www.r3.com/about/
  444. “How Blockchain Can Improve Politics” https://medium.com/@shivagbhaskar/how-blockchain-can-improve-american-politics-9a2016680f10
  445. “Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: Is the State Still Necessary?” https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2709713
  446. “A Brief History of Blockchain” https://hbr.org/2017/02/a-brief-history-of-blockchain
  447. “Transcending Politics With Vinay Gupta” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwNloQctV60
  448. “Vinay Gupta – Blockchain Beyond Bitcoin” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaH5HDhtWo4
  449. “Fundamental challenges with public blockchains” https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/fundamental-challenges-with-public-blockchains-253c800e9428
  450. See also “Buckminster Fuller is Idiotic” https://medium.com/cognitive-computing-singularity-futurology/buckminster-fuller-is-idiotic-6233e1f8b3b3
  451. “Code Is Law: On Liberty in Cyberspace” https://harvardmagazine.com/2000/01/code-is-law-html
  452. “Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: Is the State Still Necessary?” https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2709713
  453. “The Singularity” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/The_Singularity
  454. “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change” (Covey spoke about finding the right ladder to climb, rather than finding the right rope to pull) https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/36072.The_7_Habits_of_Highly_Effective_People
  455. “Official Jim Rohn Facebook page” https://www.facebook.com/OfficialJimRohn/posts/10154545230540635
  456. “The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom” http://www.happinesshypothesis.com/
  457. “The Divided Self” http://www.happinesshypothesis.com/happiness-hypothesis-ch1.pdf
  458. “The Righteous Mind” http://righteousmind.com/
  459. “Introductory Chapter” http://righteousmind.com/about-the-book/introductory-chapter/
  460. “Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-Tech Products to Mainstream Customers” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/61329.Crossing_the_Chasm
  461. “Diffusion of Innovations” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/134781.Diffusion_of_Innovations
  462. “Theodore Roosevelt Quotes” http://www.theodorerooseveltcenter.org/Learn-About-TR/TR-Quotes?page=3
  463. “The Future of Life Institute (FLI)” https://futureoflife.org/team/
  464. “Future of Humanity Institute” https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/
  465. “Centre for the Study of Existential Risk” https://www.cser.ac.uk/about-us/
  466. “Less Wrong Meetup Groups” https://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/Less_Wrong_meetup_groups
  467. “About Less Wrong” http://lesswrong.com/about/
  468. “Center for Applied Rationality” http://www.rationality.org/
  469. “Machine Intelligence Research Institute” https://intelligence.org/
  470. “Effective Altruism Global Events” https://www.eaglobal.org/events/
  471. “Effective Altruism” https://www.effectivealtruism.org/
  472. “Introduction to Effective Altruism” https://www.effectivealtruism.org/articles/introduction-to-effective-altruism/
  473. “Nodes” http://www.millennium-project.org/about-us/nodes/
  474. “Challenges” http://www.millennium-project.org/projects/challenges/
  475. “State of the Future version 19.1” http://www.millennium-project.org/state-of-the-future-version-19-1/
  476. “Global Futures Intelligence System” http://www.millennium-project.org/projects/global-futures-intelligence-system/
  477. “What is DiEM25?” https://diem25.org/what-is-diem25/
  478. “Manifesto for Democratising Europe” https://diem25.org/manifesto-long/
  479. “The Alternative” https://alternativet.dk/en
  480. “The Alternative UK” https://www.thealternative.org.uk/
  481. “A global network of networks” https://www.thealternative.org.uk/who-is-the-alternative/
  482. “The Fourth Group” http://thefourthgroup.org/
  483. “Community values” http://thefourthgroup.org/community-values/
  484. “Frequently Asked Questions” http://transhumanist-party.org/faq/
  485. “Constitution of the United States Transhumanist Party” http://transhumanist-party.org/constitution/
  486. “Category: Platform” http://transhumanist-party.org/category/platform/
  487. “Mission” http://humanityplus.org/about/mission/
  488. “TransVision” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/TransVision
  489. “Technoprogressivism” https://ieet.org/index.php/tpwiki/Technoprogressivism/
  490. “Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future” https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/111902.Citizen_Cyborg
  491. “Top of the list: the biggest impact” https://dw2blog.com/2010/01/13/top-of-the-list-the-biggest-impact/
  492. “The Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies” https://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/about
  493. “Welcome to London Futurists” https://londonfuturists.com/
  494. “History of London Futurists” https://londonfuturists.com/2016/07/10/about-london-futurists/
  495. “Videos” https://londonfuturists.com/videos/
  496. “Newsletters” https://londonfuturists.com/newsletters/
  497. “Hangouts on Air” https://londonfuturists.com/videos/hangouts-on-air/
  498. “Welcome to H+Pedia!” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  499. “Community portal” https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/Community_portal

Recent Posts

Technoprogressive Roadmap conf call

Slide1

Please find below notes from the online Zoom conference call which took place from 9pm to 10pm GMT on Sunday 17th November, discussing features of the Technoprogressive Roadmap which is being prepared and published by the UK’s Transhumanist Party.

Here’s how the conference was described in advance, via London Futurists:

In a time of intense tactical political discussion, can we identify larger, longer-term goals for politicians in the UK and elsewhere to keep firmly in mind?

The UK’s Transhumanist Party is in the process of publishing a “Technoprogressive Roadmap” for the UK: 15 transformational goals for the UK to seek to accomplish by 2035, with the goals being supported in each case by 2 interim stepping-stone targets to be accomplished by 2025.

These 15 goals span six overlapping spheres of human life: the flourishing of individuals, the flourishing of society, the flourishing of positive international relationships, the flourishing of the environment, the flourishing of humanity’s steps into the wider cosmos, and the flourishing of productive political processes.

This online conference call is a chance for people to ask questions and express their views on what the Transhumanist Party has already published. You can share your views about matters to prioritise or deprioritise, on potential alternatives, and on what shorter-term actions should be organised…

Another online conference call in the same series will be announced shortly – probably focusing on the technoprogressive vision for the future of education, and taking place from 9pm GMT on Sunday 1st December.

Setting the context

To start the conference call, the following brief set of slides were shown:

Slide2

Slide3

Slide4

A wide-ranging discussion then took place, in which only a small number of the initial points could be explored. The notes that follow include some of the highlights.

Participants

The following individual participants who spoke up during the call have kindly agreed to be identified:

  • “AK” – Alexander Karran
  • “DW” – David Wood
  • “EP” – Evan Parker
  • “JBZ” – Johannon BenZion
  • “MH” – Margaret Hardie
  • “TJO” – Thomas James O’Carroll
  • others TBC

Paragraphs in italics are comments added after the conference, making points that there was no time to include during the call itself.

The order of discussion has been rearranged in some cases, to make the underlying structure of the conversation clearer.

Technoprogressive vs. technosluggish

JBZ: Many political institutions suffer from a kind of “technosluggishness” – even when these institutions are managed by people who would see themselves as being “progressive”. These institutions aren’t able to keep up with the pace of technological change.

DW: The question isn’t whether government should be “big” or “small”. Instead, it’s how can government be fast and nimble – agile and effective. The answer partly involves changing how we humans interact, but it’s also about using the right technologies in support of our institutions.

Improving international cooperation?

TJO: Many of the goals in the Technoprogressive Roadmap will need international cooperation in order to succeed. How will this cooperation be achieved?

DW: In part, by extending what we’re doing today, in this call, nurturing links with like-minded people and groups around the world (whether or not these people are comfortable to use the terms “transhumanist” or “technoprogressive” to describe themselves).

DW: And in part, by bringing our ideas to existing international bodies, such as forums organised by the United Nations or the EU. We look forward to groups within these bodies adopting some of our ideas and developing them further.

DW: Also consider emerging new international organisations such as United Citizens of Democracy Without Borders.

Countering the trend towards greenwashing?

TJO: In the video about carbon neutrality and climate change, it is stated that

This goal rejects any creative accounting in which various actions initiated by the UK are completely omitted from the balance sheet – actions such as international shipping, flights to overseas destinations, and the production of goods overseas for import into the UK.

We cannot lower the risk of climate catastrophe by any such “greenwashing” measures of “sweeping data under the carpet”.

We need to assess the situation honestly and transparently.

TJO: What counter-measures are in mind to prevent greenwashing?

DW: Greenwashing is when people or organisations say they are going to be environmentally friendly and responsible, but they don’t follow through, or they misrepresent relevant statistics. We have to shine the light of analysis on this. We need to develop meaningful metrics which cannot be gamed – metrics that measure substantial changes in our interaction with the environment. We need to be able to have an honest discussion, based around truly useful metrics.

The future of political parties?

EP: What role does the Technoprogressive Roadmap envision for political parties in the future? Is the writing on the wall for political parties?

DW: The system of political parties has been seeing its fastest changes recently, with the quick rise of a brand new party, that is the Brexit Party (albeit based on prior work by UKIP). This is a sign that the political landscape can change more quickly than ever before.

DW: The power held by political parties in the current system does need to be weakened. This power is an example of how humanity’s instinct for tribalism (in-group loyalty) is unhelpful in the present age.

DW: It is still useful for like-minded people to be able to organise together into political parties, alliances, and groups. However, the public often feel unable to cast votes for the political parties they actually prefer the most. Instead, they often feel obliged to cast a tactical vote, in order to prevent the election of another candidate that they particularly dislike or fear. This feature makes it difficult to find out what the public actually thinks about new parties, and it helps strengthen the power of older parties.

EP: Consider an example problem – say how to improve the organisation of a nation’s health service, or the educational system. Isn’t the best way to evolve a good policy in these fields to involve people from different political dogmas, sitting down with open minds, listening to all the arguments, and then reach a consensus? That’s instead of what tends to happen now, which is people just thinking in their existing groups, e.g. a leftist grouping which allows no role for any privatisation. Isn’t it better for people to be able to look at options in an expansive way?

EP: Too much present-day political discussion is structured around groups that made sense centuries ago. We should move on, with a national conversation, with the people in Parliament being independent MPs, rather than being controlled by parties.

EP: Politics shouldn’t be focused on gaining a majority of the seats in Parliament (even a majority as low as a single seat). Parties shouldn’t feel entitled to push through their entire political manifestos, just because they gained a majority. Instead, issues should be decided one by one, free from dogma, by an open-minded discussion among independent MPs. We can do all this a lot better!

DW: Yes, too many current political discussions are bedevilled by questions of political dogma, and by people being too quickly pigeon-holed on account of a cursory inspection of their views, rather than their ideas being listened to properly. Thinking stops once a label has been applied, “left-wing” or “right-wing” or whatever.

DW: Instead, we need to move to what has been called a superdemocracy, and data-driven decision-making.

DW: People also need to become comfortable about holding in their mind two contradictory ideas at the same time, in order to allow new ideas to emerge than can transcend and unify the separate opinions.

EP: We need a culture in which people are willing to learn from diverse political views. Different political views can be fascinating. They can all have something to bring to the bigger picture.

EP: Of course emotions will come into political discussion. But that shouldn’t result in the extended divisiveness that runs through our Houses of Parliament.

EP: In summary, political parties have had their day.

DW: So perhaps the slogan of the Transhumanist Party could be, We want all parties to be abolished, including ourselves!

EP: Having groups of people sharing ideas together is fine. But the power fetish in politics is a massive problem.

EP: MPs generally go into Parliament with good intentions, but as soon as they sense they could get the red (ministerial) case, and the power that goes with it, they go along with the process (this is something that former politician Michael Portillo has talked about). They vote with their party, rather than according to their own independent assessment.

Changing the electoral system?

AK: Would proportional representation be a first step forwards? It would be a system that would allow independents to rise to the top.

EP: That’s a useful stepping stone, but the election process has more fundamental problems – as E describes in the forthcoming book Reinventing Democracy.

EP: A better process would be “representative selection” in which people are selected to join parliament, that represent all sectors of society, in a way that is truly representative. The present parliament has an over-representation of lawyers and a severe under-representation of the working class.  (3% of MPs are working class, out of around 25% of the whole population.)

AK: But how can the public mindset be changed, to support this kind of idea? Many people seem to find comfort in a model of a simplistic division of political possibilities, left vs. right. They don’t seem to have the cognitive bandwidth to assess more complicated options (although, to be clear, they do have the underlying ability). Being short of time, they prefer a nice simple set of options and actions to consider, without delving into finer points of philosophy.

Problems with our education system?

EP: The problem is that our education system does not train us to have open minds. That’s a very big flaw.

EP: We also need to point out to people that, just because a policy has failed, that’s no reason to blame someone, and to remove them from office. Instead, we should learn when a policy fails, and adjust.

DW: That’s similar to the approach of agile experimentation adopted by many leading businesses, which embrace the ideas of “fail forward, fail fast, and fail smart”.

EP: This failure-adverse mindset dates back to the previous century, and beyond.

How might representative selection work?

TJO: Are you proposing something almost like a jury system, where people are picked at random?

EP: Yes, people would initially be selected so as to represent the demographics of society.. They would need to be willing to serve. It’s for a short term – a term of service to your country. Perhaps for 2 or maybe 3 years.

EP: The system could be designed with an agreed bar level of mental agility, in order to be eligible for selection. We could put the bar as high (or low) as we like. (Our current crop of MPs aren’t particularly bright…)

TJO: But how would this be implemented? How could the change be introduced? Any existing government might reject the idea.

EP: See chapter 5 of the forthcoming book…

EP: Actually it’s very important that we can suggest a positive solution. There are far too many critics who complain about problems with our present state of democracy, without offering a credible positive alternative to the present system.

Democracy and engagement?

EP: Our current system is democracy in name only. The populace are not well engaged with it. 95% of people say they’re not interested in politics. It’s a failure of our education system.

EP: For the wellbeing of society, people need to feel comfortable and engaged about talking about the big ideas of the day.

EP: Actually, in good circumstances, the public discussion of politics can indeed become more engaging. Something like 80% of the electorate took part in the recent referendum on Scottish independence.

EP: To help greater engagement, there’s a big role for digital platforms, that encourage and enable good quality discussions.

Possible roles for technology?

A2: Could blockchain help with a reliable random selection? This is something blockchain companies are already exploring within their own governance structure.

A2: Most countries have National ID systems and those would effectively integrate easily with this system.

A2: Another system of representative system is delegative democracy. In delegative democracy, you cast votes yourself only on issues you care about and feel you have clear views about. For example, I care a lot about water and, therefore, would be more interested in devoting time towards researching that topic and taking part in votes about it. In another case, if there is someone who is more interested than me in food issues, who I trust, then, I should be able to transfer my vote to them. This is something that should be possible using technological systems in place.

DW: The book Transcending Politics speaks positively about liquid democracy (an example of delegative democracy).

JBZ: Has talked to someone who founded a blockchain voting company in Australia. He would also agree in the importance of post-partisanship, as being key to real progress.

EP: The technology should enable a productive national conversation, which draws upon the views of ordinary people, experts, think tanks, politicians, the civil service, and so on. There are many big topics, associated with technological possibilities, that urgently deserve a national conversation – consider the quantum computing possibilities covered at yesterday’s London Futurists event, or increased longevity.

JBZ: It’s a double-edged sword. People can use the technology of new information systems in destructive ways too, socially engineering outcomes that they personally wish to see, but which may not be in the general interest.

JBZ: Rather than blaming the low-information voters who have been led astray by this kind of social engineering, we should be blaming the bad actors who are doing the manipulation.

AK: Regarding blockchain: bear in mind that systems using blockchain aren’t necessarily truly anonymous. However, the ability to cast a vote truly anonymously is important. Tying votes to entries in a national ID register could be a recipe for unwanted control.

DW: Technology that makes it easier for people to be correctly added to the voting registration list should be welcomed. There are parts of the world where politicians actively try to suppress the voting rights of parts of the community they believe would vote against them. Too many people in these regions – including some states of the USA – are deliberately disenfranchised.

JBZ: In the USA, this is an example of so-called hyper-partisanship.

Has voting has its day?

MH: Who decides what the ‘greater good’ is? Who arbitrates between conflicting priorities and on what basis? The whole notion of legitimacy needs revisiting. Should we have a ‘voting licence’ the way we have a driving licence? On the basis of the fact that how you vote can cause serious damage

EP: Voting may have had its day. Historically, it was very important. It was great that people in the past fought for the right to vote. But if a society was being designed from scratch, we should be able to consider different options.

EP: Voting can be used for many important functions, but it’s probably not the best system to select the people who will be sitting in Parliament. There are other, better ways of ensuring appropriate representation.

EP: Would favour there still being MPs who have ties to local communities. But how the MPs are selected in a representative way needn’t involve voting.

DW: There’s much more to democracy than just the voting. Democracy is about involving everyone in the conversation, bringing insights from multiple perspectives, and taking the time to ensure that there are solutions that work for everybody, without leaving segments of the populace behind.

DW: Voting is only a part of democracy. We make a fetish of voting at our own danger.

A role for AI overseeing politics?

AK: Humans aren’t very good at managing other humans. We’re too partisan. Can’t we take more advantage of decision-support tools?

MH: Should we all have an impartial AI political advisor? The ‘impartial’ bit might be hard to engineer from what is mostly biased data on politics out there.

AK: It’s true there are problems of potential data bias. But with some care, can’t we envision a neural network processing enough data that it can offer us policy recommendations?

AK: Consider the remarkable results already achieved in text generation by OpenAI’s GPT system:

We’ve trained a large-scale unsupervised language model which generates coherent paragraphs of text, achieves state-of-the-art performance on many language modeling benchmarks, and performs rudimentary reading comprehension, machine translation, question answering, and summarization—all without task-specific training.

AK: Imagine feeding such a system with all the political discourse from the last 2,000 years, say, and works of philosophy, and then asking it questions. Couldn’t that help in independent formulation and evaluation of policy?

AK: A decision-support system would be of great assistance to the human representatives selected for the task of working in Parliament. It could generate a number of policy recommendations which would then act as seeds for further group discussion by humans. Note that humans would remain “in the loop”.

JBZ: The Technological Roadmap envisions AI-driven governance.

TJO: The “House of AI” idea.

DW: The basic idea is that we have the best of human intelligence supported by the best of artificial intelligence.

DW: We’re seeing some of that already: consider Wikipedia, and the Snopes fact-checking site. We’re seeing some fact-checking in real time now. There’s scope to improve it further, so that when politicians are speaking on screen, the display will also indicate in real-time if there are questionable aspects in what the politicians say. There could be some kind of traffic light red/amber/green indication.

DW: As well as checking facts, this AI system could draw attention to issues with the argument (logical fallacies, cognitive biases, etc). Going further, this isn’t just about showing when humans have got something wrong; it’s about proposing new syntheses of ideas.

DW: This will be covered in more detail in the video for the 15th goal in the set. Although it’s the last one in the set, it may be the most important in the whole set.

A possible trial in a small city state?

JBZ: At RAADfest recently the talk by Ray Kurzweil reviewed some impressed progress with the capabilities of predictive algorithms, developed at Google and elsewhere.

JBZ: Software that can process and generate text is already progressing very quickly. We may not be far from seeing a group of people try a new governance model, using pilot versions of technology, in a small city state somewhere, separate from traditional governance oversight.

JBZ has been invited to go to Bolivia to discuss with some people there about such a community. It’s not clear how to evaluate how seriously this project should be taken. It’s easy to talk, but harder to follow through.

DW: There are a number of communities with strong libertarian and voluntarist principles that are already organising themselves around the world. There may be a talk at London Futurists soon, by someone who has spent time in several of these communities. These communities are seeking to take advantage of technology to organise themselves in different ways than has traditionally been the norm.

DW: So maybe this is how we will make progress: demonstrate the viability of ideas about better politics and better governance in small scale pilots.

DW: The online group Zero State had some similar aspirations, though it seems these have yet to be fulfilled.

Who would write the AI used in government?

A2: Who should be writing the algorithm for any AI  used in AI-driven governance? I think first we need an algorithm bill (regulations) before we even get into having such an advisor.

DW: Agreed that clear principles are needed here. We need to avoid giving too central a role in society to an AI that on the surface is serving the needs of the general public, but which is in a deeper sense supporting the business objectives of the organisation or corporation which created it.

DW: It’s like today’s social media: we value the services we get from it, but we are aware that we are, in a sense, being manipulated by it.

DW: Therefore the videos about increased political flourishing – goals 14 and 15 – will advocate for clear agreement on the principles by which any AI must be developed, before it can be adopted in any central role in society.

DW: Some of the principles will be transparency and explainability. There will also be principles about identifying biases in the data used to train any machine learning.

AK: Open source will help here.

AK: Note that these AI algorithms generally aren’t “written” in any traditional sense, but they emerge from a process of training.

JBZ: Yes, the predictions often come from a “black box”, without it being understood why various predictions (e.g. life expectancy) have been made. We may have cases where the AI is right, but we cannot understand why it is right, and we cannot really trust it.

DW: The technoprogressive roadmap proposal is that AIs will not be accepted, unless they can explain their reasoning in a satisfactory way. Opaque AI should not be accepted. A movement in support of explainability of AI is already gathering momentum, independent of the technoprogressive roadmap.

Priorities for next steps?

DW: What topics should be discussed in subsequent calls? One option is to dive more deeply into the future of education.

AK: Support the idea of having issue-based conversations. And support the idea of a call focused on education.

EP: In a way, education underpins everything else.

MH: It’s about more than just education. There are an awful lot of very educated people out there with quite retrograde views. It’s terrifying.

TJO: Interested in the interconnections between different points in the roadmap – a series of dependencies.

DW: The goal of looking at these dependencies would be to try to identify the interventions that would have the greatest leverage.

DW: One example of an interconnection is the same that climate change seems to increase social stresses and to lead on to problems such as civil wars, as in Syria.

DW: Perhaps it is goal 2, for increased mental fitness and emotional vitality, that will have the biggest positive impacts on progress with all the other goals. If more people around the world have broader, calmer minds, living in a way that is more focused and more helpful, we would be less prone to being adversely manipulated or distracted by various external or internal pressures.

JBZ: A friend in the US has suggested that improving the public health service there should rank as the highest priority. A mindshift towards treating aging as a disease, and allocating funds accordingly, promoting healthy longevity, is key to improving matters.

JBZ: We also have a lot to learn from what Estonia is doing with digital governance. In turn, with a better digital infrastructure, Estonia is looking forward to an improved health system. We may be able to learn from San Marino too (an even smaller country).

JBZ: Other longevity-related topics to review include the longevity caucus in the USA, and the increasing electoral successes of the Party for Health Research in Germany.

DW: There has been lots of news recently in the UK about extended waiting times at accident and emergency in the national health service, about resource shortages, and other growing crises. The problems run so deep that they cannot be resolved simply by hiring more doctors and nurses, and building new hospitals. Instead, the transhumanist insight is that what’s needed is a switch to better preventive measures, including health rejuvenation interventions, and including better mental health (since bad physical health often stems from bad mental health).

DW: It’s true, as was said earlier, that even very well educated people can have very retrograde views – terrifyingly so. I see that as a problem of poor mental health or poor emotional intelligence.

A2: From a health perspective, we need to have focus on prevention through better data on individuals, better diets and a focus away from cure which is the current focus of the NHS.

A2: This is something we are now seeing come through biotechnology sector. I am lucky enough to be working in a start-up developing blood tests that individuals can do themselves. When healthy individuals have data and apps to help them with mental health then we will see a move in the right direction but this is highly unlikely to come through the NHS.

TJO: Ideas for innovative new treatments in the mental health space, such as “mental health ninjas” also deserve more attention.

DW: Interestingly, there are some public surveys that suggest that the question of the best way forwards for the NHS is viewed by electors as even more important, in determining how they will vote, than the question of Brexit.

JBZ: There were lots of important themes in the roadmap videos – such as post-scarcity and the elevation of the human condition through technology – that we haven’t had the time to discuss in this call.

AK: Let’s not forget about the importance of “transcendental purpose”. People in the general public need to have a bigger vision for a better society.

DW: My own vision is that the technoprogressive roadmap can come to provide that kind of necessary, uplifting vision for the general public.

MH: How about trying to use the ‘election lift’ for the subject of the technoprogressive roadmap and see if you could interest a TV station in making a programme about this topic?

DW: Yes, as soon as the set of videos has been completed.

JBZ: Ready to help with any media opportunities, even at short notice.

MH: Part of me is very enthused about this discussion. But I’m worried about how to organise a transition from today’s adversarial political thought and action, which is based on scarcity, towards a more inclusive abundance-mentality point of view. How do we get these ideas to the people at large, if we’re not standing candidates?

MH: If we want to talk positively about technology, we have a lot of mistrust to overcome, due to social media and Cambridge Analytica. People are, with some reason, fearful of loss of jobs, and of surveillance capitalism.

MH: Perhaps the recent movement with public interest in climate change is showing the way. The fast changes in public discourse give reason for optimism.

DW: I share the inspiration of what has happened recently with climate change campaigners.

DW: Although we’re not standing any candidates in the election next month, we do have something akin to a manifesto, which is the set of goals for 2035, along with plans for shorter-term projects in support of the 2025 interim goals.

DW: Greater clarity on possible next steps with these 2025 interim goals will be important. There may be a video in the series focused on just that point. We haven’t discussed these goals in this conference call at all. It’s something to pick up in later calls in this series.

TJO: To build a larger audience, I recommend word-of-mouth. Anyone is welcome to join in.

MH: But why is the participation for this particular call so small, out of a membership of London Futurists of more than 7,000?

DW: I think we need time to build momentum. Establish a pattern and then build on it.

JBZ: The imminence of a new year – indeed a new decade, the 2020s – is likely to cause more people to reflect on the need for new initiatives. Perhaps the 2020s will become like a new 1960s!

A2: Thanks for the discussion, guys. I think the future is bright as long as we continue to discuss and bring the idea forward.

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